Shape of the earth which we see so far is a model of the earth who contrived by man, sometimes there is a round sometimes elliptical. Tp is not really like that shape the earth, its shape is irregular. And though more easily ngegambarnya, eventually become more common round. And this round by making a flat map. His name is also a map, picture of the earth's surface in the plane

Because the earth's surface is not flat, curved arch alias irregular, but the maps need a picture of the plane, it would require the conversion of the actual field curvature of the earth onto a flat surface to prevent distortion of the earth's surface.

This nieh size of the earth in number

Ellipticity: 0003 352 9
Mean radius: 6,372.797 km
Equatorial radius: 6,378.137 km
Polar radius: 6,356.752 km
Aspect Ratio: 0996 647 1
equatornya radius is longer than the polar radius
Ever peel an orange? Bangat definitely hard to put the orange peel into a flat surface, but the orange peel all connected. who was also experienced by cartographers when mapping the earth's surface, they must move the geographical certain way, pull back and combine the parts together in order to connect a flat map. the map is no exception globe is distorted from the real world. For smaller areas, the distortion is not significant due to small areas in the globe looks like a flat surface. For larger areas or for purposes that require high accuracy, however the distortion is very important. Therefore we need a map projection. In the preparation of maps required a projection map which gives the relationship between the points on the earth with the maps, well-chosen projections which are required to have a small distortion.

In principle, the meaning of the projection map is an attempt to change the shape of curved to form a flat surface, with the requirements of a modified form that must be fixed, changed surface area should be fixed and the distance between one point to another point on the surface is modified to be fixed.

Map projections are the techniques used to describe partial or complete three-dimensional surface that is spherical kasaran into a flat two-dimensional surface with as little distortion as possible. In a map projection system that delivers pursued the relationship between the position of the points on the earth and on the map

to meet all three requirements change from curved to flat field bangat it was not possible, then there kompromi2 in using these terms, so came the various types of projections. Some common types of projection is a cylinder / tube (cylindrical), cone (conical), plane (zenithal) and composition (arbitrarry)

Type of projection that we often encounter everyday are spin projection, the projection is obtained through calculation. Type of projection is often used in Indonesia is the WGS-84 (World Geodetic System) and UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator)

WGS-84 (World Geodetic System) is the best for the overall geoid ellipsoid. Largest deviation between the geoid to WGS-84 ellipsoid is 60 m above and 100 m below it. When the size of the long axis of WGS-84 ellipsoid is 6,378,137 m with kegepengan 1/298.257, the largest deviation of this ratio is 1/100 000. Indonesia, like other countries, using the size of this ellipsoid for the measurement and mapping in Indonesia. WGS-84 "set, diimpitkan" obtained such that the smallest deviation in the archipelago of Indonesia. Impit point WGS-84 geoid in Indonesia with a datum known as Padang (relative geodetic datum) is used as a reference point in the national mapping. Genuk datum previously known in the area around Semarang to the Dutch created the mapping. Using the same ER - WGS 84, since 1995 Indonesia's national mapping using absolute geodetic datum. DGN-95. In this absolute datum system, ER center coincides with the center of the earth.

UTM projection is a projection map that many of the choosing and in use in mapping activities in Indonesia because of the ideal value syarat2 meet in accordance with the shape, location and extent of Indonesia. UTM specifications include (1) using a cutting cylinder area of ​​the globe on two standard meridian which has a scale factor k = 1, (2) The width of the zone of 6 ° was calculated from 180 ° West by zone numbers 1 through to 180 ° east by numbers zone 60. Each zone has its own central meridian, (3) each zone has its own central meridian with a magnification factor = 0.9996, (4) Boundary parallel top edge and bottom edge is 84 ° N and 80 ° S and (5) projected to be in conformity. According to Frans ( UTM using a cylinder which wraps ellipsoid with axes standing perpendicular to the cylinder axis ellipsoid (axis of rotation of the earth), so that the ellipsoid and the tangent cylinder is a line which coincides with the longitude on the ellipsoid. As a result, titik2 on the line lies in both fields, so that although his position is moved (projected), from ellipsoid to cylindrical, it will not change (distortion)

find more bodies of passengers sukoi

Despite the search aircraft Sukhoi Superjet victim's body 100 on the slopes of Mount Salak, Bogor, West Java, an official stopped and the bodies are buried, there are still pieces of the bodies that have not been evacuated.

This afternoon, residents near the slopes of Mount Salak, re-find pieces of bodies of suspected victims of Sukhoi. The findings were immediately reported to the National SAR Agency (Basarnas).

National SAR Agency head Vice Marshal TNI Daryatmo confirmed the findings of the pieces of dead bodies Sukhoi. Even so, still not daring to make sure Daryatmo and who declared that the body pieces.

"Late afternoon, by the people. I do not know the details, I am meeting here.'ll Please ask to get there," he told reporters at the Parliament Building, Senayan, Jakarta, Monday (28/05/2012).

He added, finding pieces of Sukhoi's corpse is very possible. Whereas, the steep slopes of Mount Salak and the evacuation process is often impaired resulting in a lack of time to telitian when the search process.

"The body of the victim is very likely. Because, the difficulty of the location. Say, we have such a wide sweep, the group was very small body," he said.

Furthermore, he asserts, it still can not give any further explanation is related to the location of its discovery. Because, still must be checked

Sar pieces of bodies found in the bodies of the Russian piece guess and SAR will Flakes Hand Control Lever Sukhoi Alleged to NTSC

Jakarta Flakes Sukhoi Superjet 100 is found two days ago on Mount Salak, Bogor, West Java, allegedly controlling lever aircraft. SAR team will be handed to the National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC).

It is said the evacuation coordinator of Basarnas Ketut Purwa Sukhoi, which pick up the pieces of the plane of the Police Hospital morgue Sukanto, Kramatjati, East Jakarta, Wednesday (05/30/2012).

Ketut seemed to bring an old cardboard wrapped in paper HVS transparent yellow plastic bag. Looks bumps iron from the box.

"Do not know exactly, like the components of the aircraft, but it looks like the airplane pilot stick," said Ketut it when asked.

Ketut suspect many more pieces of the plane on Mount Salak. Ketut said Basarnas still lose the team to look for the Flight Data Recorder (FDR).

"We're looking for FDR but not much as before, only a few people Basarnas, Paskhas and NTSC," said Ketut.

Ketut added, there were about 8 people from seeking Basarnas FDR. Cardboard boxes and brought it out, will be submitted to the office for the central Basarnas then handed over to NTSC.

"It will be submitted to the Basarnas, just submitted to the NTSC," he said.

Gunung Salak Closed

On this occasion, Ketut also explains Mount Salak is still closed to the general public that FDR sterile because the search process is performed.

"To be more sterile and focus. Scared of people finding something she thought was important but not essential. That request until the invention of FDR NTSC I guess there is no time limit. Member until recently I was still in embryo Command Post (Cipelang)," said Ketut.
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Find the Pyramids, Tim Archaeologists Find Prehistoric Pottery in Mount Padang

Jakarta Excavation Site search pyramids on Mount Padang, Cianjur begins. Archaeologists have found traces of the relics at the site. The team found pottery and pottery from the prehistoric period.

"It's getting there and earthenware pottery. If prehistoric forms. This item has been saved," said Archaeologist Team Leader, Ali Akbar while talking on Thursday (5/17/2012).

Site Location Mount Padang formerly believed to be a pyramid. Archaeologists call it a pyramid punden terraces. Thus, the pyramid is different from the pyramid as in Egypt. In this area, it is believed that the hill piled with boulders.

"The mention of punden staircase," he explained.

Site of Mount Padang, has been known to pile rocks large square stones of various sizes these rocks can produce tones. For the time being related to the excavation, these stones were moved there.

"Will there be excavation, will open the layers. Hopefully there will be more interesting findings," he said.

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How To Know A Place Altitude

Sometimes we are faced with a condition where we should be able to determine the altitude of a place, but we do not have the tools to determine the altitude (altimeter), it can be solved by:

-See a map of the first interval, then compute the height where we want to know, there is a general formulation of the contour interval = 1/2000 scale map. tetapim formula is not always true, some output Geological Survey topographic map of the original Bandung scale 1:50,000 (contour interval 25 m), but later enlarged to scale 1:25.000 with a fixed 25-meter contour interval.

At the urging of a particular condition, such as SAR mountain forests, often in the map reproduced by photocopy. Therefore, the contour interval map must still be written. Bakosurtanal output maps (1:50,000) to make a thick contour for each multiple of 250 meters, or each contour interval 10. AMS series output maps (1:50,000 scale) to make a thick contour lines for each multiple of 100 meters. Geological map of the output Bandung thickness is not uniform provisions of the contour lines. Thus there are no special provisions for the determination and uniformly thick contour lines.

When the height contours are not listed, then we have to calculate the altitude of a place by:

A. Find the two points adjacent to the listed price

2. Calculate the difference in height between the two points. Calculate how many contours found between the two (not counting the contours of the same price if the two points separated by a valley).

3. By knowing the difference in height of the two points and knowing also the number of contour is obtained, can be calculated how much the contour interval (must be an integer).

4. See one of the closest contour point height (if it is above the nearest contour point, the price of the contours is greater than the height of the point. When the contour is located at the bottom, costs less). Calculate the price of the nearest kontuir which must be a multiple of the price of a known contour interval of no 3. doing calculations on a few times until confident that the price obtained for each contour correctly. Include the price of some of the contours on your map so you can easily remember.

Triangulation point

Apart from the contour lines, we may be able to find a place with the help of high-altitude titk. The point of elevation is usually the point of triangulation, which is an object of the pillars titikatau / milestone menyatakn a place of absolute height above sea level. Triangulation points used by the service-bureau topography to determine the altitude of the measurement science at the time of making maps. Kind of triangulation points:

- Primary: Quaternary P.14/3120: Q.20/1350

- Secondary: Tertiary S.75/1750: T.16/975

Know the Signs Medan

In addition to the field marks contained on the legend. Topographic maps used to use the forms or striking landscapes in the field and easily recognizable on the map, which we call sign field. Some signs of terrain you can "read" off the map before you go to the site, but then there should be looking for the location, field signs include:

- Top of a mountain or a hill, mountain ridge, the valley between two peaks, and other forms of conspicuous bulge.

- Steep valleys, rivers, creeks meeting, bend in the river, the cliffs on the banks of the river.

- Winding road, bridge (intersection of the river by the way), the end of the village crossroads.

- When at the beach, the estuary of the river would be a very clear sign of the field, as well as the promontory that juts into the sea, striking bays, small islands, deltas, etc.

- In the area of ​​land or marshes are usually difficult to obtain the Earth's surface protrusions or hills that can be worn as a sign of the field. Surface of the bend-bend of the river, the river branches, small estuaries.

- In the traverse on the river, a sharp bend, a branch of the river, cliffs, delta and so can be used as a field mark.

This field marks the absolute sense to master. Will always be used in the subsequent description of the technique map compass.


A. To Compass

Compass is a compass that is used to determine the direction of magnetic north. Due to the nature kemagnetannya, the compass needle will point north-south direction (if not influenced by the presence of magnetic forces other than the Earth's magnetic). But keep in mind that the direction designated by the compass needle is the earth's magnetic north, so it's not true north.

Physically, the compass consists of: a) the Agency, where the other components of the compass is located; b) The needle always points to north-south position however; c) The scale of the pointer, indicating the degree of the compass system.

2. Types of Reuters, in a way many kinds of compasses that can be used, is generally used two types of compasses, the compass scene (eg prismatic compass) and compass orienteering (eg compass silva). Compass viewfinder is easy to aim, but in reading the map need to be equipped with a protractor and a ruler. Silva compass is less accurate when used for aiming, but a lot of help in reading and computation on the map. Compass is well on its tip coated with phosphor to be visible in the dark.

3. Use of Compass, the compass is used with a horizontal position in accordance with the direction of the Earth's magnetic field lines. In using the compass, it should be kept away from the influence of objects containing metal, such as knives, machetes, karabiner, watches and more. The presence of these objects will affect the compass needle so that its accuracy will be reduced.


altimeter is the altitude measuring device that can assist in determining the position. In the high mountainous terrain, using a compass resection is often not much help, here is more useful altimeter. Along the ridge-ridge with easily recognizable on the map, altimeter will be more involved in the trip, which must be considered in the use of altimeter:

- Used every altimeter must be calibrated. Check the accuracy of the altimeter at an altitude points for sure.

- Altimeter is very sensitive to shocks, changes in weather and temperature change.


Waste disposal of coal is incidental to the production and exploitation of coal processing 10% -20% of raw coal production. In China, there are a large number of coal from a large number of coal mining operations. In most cases, the coal stacked continuously with the exploitation and processing of coal. As a result of the disposal pile of coal or coal waste piles. Piles of coal waste disposal problem has recently grown. runoff and seepage from the pile of coal at the disposal of acid and other contaminants to surface water and surrounding soil. In addition, dust and spontaneous combustion products continue to degrade air quality, causing water pollution and air pollution. Thus causing a problem of land occupation, pollution of soil and vegetation damage. As a result of mining operations, which are considered as factors that cause serious damage to local environment issues. With this may monitor the disposal of coal heap in their respective places of spatial information which serves as basic information for future evaluation of the environmental and ecological restoration. With the survey can be obtained by the local coal mines and the location, service by developing the characteristics of collapse and crack. With GIS, we can make an initial evaluation to determine the stability and intensity.
From 1995 to 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted assessments of coal with coal zone is expected to generate most of the coal for the next few decades. Coal seams and coal zone models are produced in each region.

Research Methods Based on Remote Sensing and GIS, spatial information extraction major coal waste piles that support the evaluation of environmental and ecological restoration, which is the 2D surface area and volume. Meanwhile, the DEM was established as the center and the bridge for the extraction of spatial information. Various approaches to the extraction of spatial information using remote sensing imagery has been developed and implemented on a serial computer. Based on remote sensing image and the previous contours derived from pre-processing of raw remote sensing images and topographic maps, image interpretation and three-dimensional analysis carried out in order to obtain Interest Area (AOT) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). Further calculation of spatial information is a pile of coal waste disposal is therefore based on the AOI and DEM under the GIS platform operation. ArcGIS and selected as the software Erdas GIS and RS software, respectively, both from ESRI.
Plan Area: One of the most useful basic GIS allows the operator the production of thematic layers of information summary. With raster data, GIS system is the value obtained by calculating the sum of the values ​​of each cell, then multiplying by the area of ​​each unit. In a vector system, the calculation is performed based on the geometry of the polygon. Data provided in this study are raster data and therefore the method of calculating raster data plan is adopted. Raster calculation system is usually faster in operation than the calculation of the vector system. Nevertheless, it should be noted that when we are effectively 'count cells', they suffer from quantization errors, which will be larger with lower resolution. With regard to the raster data used in this study, data builds on the DEM with 1m equidistance map table, which is derived from large-scale topographic maps 1:1000, while the remote sensing images photographed by air-born platforms with a resolution of 0.5m. As a result, the problem of low quantization error can be ignored.

In 1999 there were far more images of small coalmines, but the scale of the image is too small, and smaller coalmines' locations and ranges can not be determined effectively. Aerial photography in June 2005 has been solid vegetation coverage, and fell seriously interfere with the plant, but they reflected the black deposits such as coal piles, coal washing spots abandoned coalmines and tiny clear. Since 1998, local government has launched a series of actions against small mines, such as closure, abortion, combination, and rectification, making lots of small coalmines completely lost from the soil. But in the Quickbird image prior to 2005, the distribution of almost all can coalmines Interpreting the surface collapses, cracks and small coalmines of remote sensing images we mainly depend on the features of the image (ie the spectral features: tone and color) and spatial characteristics (shape, size, shadow, texture , graphics, location and layout). Comprehensive analysis and reasoning of various related non-remote sensing information (such as topographic maps, map the distribution of known mined areas, the old sailor, survey maps of geological disasters in the past, etc.) combined with changes in surface elevation also plays an important role . In the process of interpretation, the use of stereoscopy image interpretation and processing of images and visual effects enhance the precision of the results effectively.
Available estimates by means of Coal Mining Methods to estimate the available coal mining method begins with a GIS layer was developed by the Northern Appalachian Basin coal assessment team; add a layer to apply the criteria required minability minability develop and apply criteria to determine the maximum amount of available coal; apply social and environmental restrictions for coal set aside, and apply a minimum size of mining block to identify and set aside the remaining adjacent to the coal that is too small and not economically viable for development. The end result of applying the tool is a digital map and data that identify the block of coal in the Pittsburgh coal seam remaining available for mining by certain mining technology. Only a brief description of the application of this tool is provided in this paper. Watson (2002) provide additional details about the use of tools and reports the results of additional samples for Pittsburgh coal bed. Basic Assessment GIS GIS Layer the following layers, prepared by the Northern Appalachian Basin coal assessment team, used to mark the location and quantity of coal Pittsburgh:
(1) the amount of coal resource area.
(2) the remaining area of ​​coal resources.
(3) the extent of the mined area,
(4) coal isopach thickness.
(5) structure contours.
Five constraints are applied in a GIS analysis to describe available for coal mining. First, all the remaining coal is less than 12 in. in thickness were identified and removed from consideration for any application for the mining of coal is generally thin I was not economical. Second, 50 ft horizontal safety barrier placed around the historical ditambangdaerah and coal remaining in the safety barrier is set aside by the analysis to simulate industrial safety practices and regulations. Third, GIS buffering and classification method was applied to remove the coal in restricted areas and buffers around the restricted areas (Suffredini and others, 1994; Rohrbacher and others, 1993, 2000). Fourth, technical considerations, for example, coal thickness, overburden depth, and dip, especially for technologies applied to coal mining when it was described to them the technology. Fifth, in order to meet the operational efficiency in the mining, graded coal blocks are required to have a minimum amount of coal

Location Sukhoi Still Mysterious Black Box, Search Area Expanded

Evacuation teams were still moving on the slopes of Mount Salak. Teams looking for dead bodies Sukhoi, also black box. Since its inception, the evacuation team had been given instructions on how to form the black box.

"We're new to the area. In his steep, lots of bush. We comb, but because the tail was destroyed, it is estimated that mental black box," explained the head of the evacuation team of Marines, Lieutenant Colonel Junianto Oni as confirmed on Tuesday (5/15/2012) .

Remaining debris was found Sukhoi tail. The section was destroyed in the small fragments. Expected, a small black box with orange and store the data in the area of ​​150-200 meters mental.

"That analysis only. Black box that's powerful and small so it's possible to bounce, so probably around that area," he said.

Besides black box, the team is still preparing evacuation jenzah bag. Search the bodies and the black box carried out hand in hand. "So nothing is a priority," said Oni is still on Mount Salak this.

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