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Lindgren (1907, 1913 and 1922) popularized the Genetic Classification or deposit of product classification mechanics or chemical concentration and classification of hydrothermal veins (hydrothermal vein). In group Lindgren including pirometa-somatic (igneous metamorpik) and hydrothermal deposits.

Classification Lindgren (Modification)
1. The precipitate that formed through a process of chemical concentrations (Temperature and Pressure Varies)

a. In a magma, by the process of differentiation
· magmatic deposits (segresi magma, magmatic liquid), T 700-15000C; P is very high.
· deposition Pegmatit; T medium-very high, very high P

b. In the body of rock
· concentrations because there is the addition of external (epigenetic)
· origin depends on the eruption of igneous rocks
Ø By blowing directly clot (magma)
ü From the effusive; sublimat; fumaroles, T 100-6000C; P atmosphere-medium
ü From the intrusive, Igneous metamorphic deposits; T 500-8000C, very high P
Ø By the addition of hot water filled with magma material
ü hipothermal deposition; T 300-5000C, very high P
ü mesothermal deposits; T 200-3000C, very high P
ü epithermal deposits; T 50-2000C, very high P
ü telethermal deposition; low T, low P
ü xenothermal deposition; T high-medium, medium-atmospheric P

· concentration of material in the rock body itself:
Ø Concentration by dynamic and regional metamorphism, T s / d 4000C; P high.
Ø The concentration of water in the soil; T 0-1000C; P is
Ø Concentration by lapukan rocks and weathering residue near the surface, T 0-1000C, P is-atmosphere

c. In the surface water
· The solution interaction; T 0-700C; P is
Inorganic Reaction Ø
Ø Organic Reactions
· by solvent evaporation

2. Deposits generated through mechanical concentration; T & P is.

P = Pressure
T = Temperature


PT. Freeport Indonesia is a mining company with majority ownership by Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. ie 81.28% and the rest is PT. Indocopper Investama 9.36% and the Indonesian government itself which is only 9.36%. Minerals produced include gold, Silver, Molybdenum and rhenium.The process begins operation of mining activities by applying the technique of open-pit or open cut mining at the Grasberg mine as well as techniques ambrukan or block-caving underground mine in the Deep Ore Zone (DOZ). Then the crushed ore mining results using several different techniques to further destruction of the separation process concentrates containing minerals such as copper, gold and silver. Concentrated in the form of slurry (slurry) is transferred from plant to plant in the port Amamapare drying.The process of drying pulp (slurry) is dried concentrate with 3 units of rotary vacuum disc filters and a new pressure filter unit. Concentrates are hardened (cake) from the rotary vacuum disc filters and then dried with 3 pieces of a rotary kiln burner. Concentrate dry with moisture content of about 9% of the concentrate is stored in the warehouse with a capacity total of approximately 135,000 tons metric. Additional storage space available on the pads next to the dryer plant.
One unit of equipment used in slurry drying process is a pressure filter unit. This unit serves to filter the slurry concentrate with high pressure. The use of very high pressure resulting in possible damage to this unit, causing the drying of concentrate did not meet eligibility standards processed. Therefore it is necessary to test the quality of the process of the unit by using Statistica Process Control (SPC) to monitor, control, analyze, manage and improve products and processes.Statistica Process Control (SPC) in this regard will be applied as a statistical method for monitoring and control process to ensure that the machine working at its full potential and generate the appropriate product. Excess SPC lies in the ability to examine the processes and sources of variation in the process by providing objective analysis allowing each source will be determined numerically.
APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL METHODS IN NUMERICAL GEOLOGYNumerical Geology actually can not be separated by geostatistics. Geology numerically almost equal to the numerical method, namely as a bridge between the mathematics and computer algorithms. Without a numerical method is very difficult to apply the mathematical processes on the computer. Examples are easy, such as to make interpretation of the curve equating method (matching curve) as in the interpretation of geoelectric or groundwater pumping test. The curve of raw / standard (model) can be mathematically calculated and field data can be easily plotted on a graph. The question is how do the equation of curve with a computer? Undeniably, the curve equation can be manually performed by sliding the standard curve (as in the lab geohydrology and geophysical exploration) to nearly exact position of the curve in the vicinity of data points. But in this kind of thing a computer can not be done. To equate the standard curve and pitch curve is usually done by a method of iteration (looping), which will produce a minimum error value from the equation of standard curve with field points.Examples of numerical methods are widely used in geology: Iteration Gauss, Gauss-Siedal, Newton-Raphson, Gauss-Newton.Recent developments have included some mathematical methods:· Fuzzy logic (for modeling porosity and image characterization for petrography)· Fuzzy c-means Cluster Analysis (for the exploration of mineral deposits)· Fractal, FEM (finite element method), FFT (fast Fourier transform), etc.· ANN (artificial neural network) that is widely used for modeling mine


Case Example One Dimensional Numerical IntegrationCalculation of Volume and Weight Stone Cover (Overburden)

Problem:An open cut coal mine (pit) is planned with the following quantities:- Equation topographic lines: H (x) = -3 (10-09) x3 + 2 (10-05) x2- 0.0591x + 362.06, with x (m) and H (x) is the position of the reference point and elevation from sea level (m).- The inclination (dip) and highwall coal respectively 6o and 60o.- The coordinates of points A, B and C are (10.361), (1510.100) and (1629.306) With these data required to calculate the total volume of overburden that must be opened from the open coal mine.

Parameters in use:1. Deposit geometry and grade distribution2. Rock mass strength for the ore, hangingwall and footwall3. Mining costs and capital required4. The rate of mining5. Type the ability of workers / labor6. Environmental issues7. Other special considerations

Data needed1. GeologyInterpretation of the geological evaluation Dlm mrpkn important bag min. Dr. tsb verifiable interpretations made peta2 geological cross-section and interchangeable pieces shows the main types of bat, alteration zones, veins, etc. fold axis.

2. Deposit geometry and Distribution LevelsFrom the geometry defined retrievable geological interpretation and grade distribution. Geometry CEB stated Dlm:- Form: irregular dimensions, sheets, tubes, irregular.- The thickness of the ore: thin, medium, thick, very thick- Subduction: flat, moderate, steep- The depth of the ore- Distribution of content: uniform, gradual, erratic

3. Characteristics of Mek-BatIncludes:- Strength of rock intack: mrpkn ratio of uniaxial compressive strength against tek cover soil.- Space fracture: is determined based on the number of fragments per meter or RQD (Rock Quality Designation). RQD adl Qty PJG all core pieces reply> or equal 2 times the diameter of the core, divided by the total PJG drilling.- Strong shear fractions (weak, moderate, strong)

Steps in Numerical Mining Method Selection:1. Defining characteristics of geometry and grade distribution and characteristics of the bat Mek2. Assign numeric value to each characteristic geometry and grade distribution3. Set the numeric value of each characteristic Mek-bat for the bjh, HW areas, FW Area4. Summing the numerical value of dr characteristics of geometry and grade distribution, characteristics Mek

    bat ore district, regional and local HW FW.5. Develop ranking meth berdsrkan mining large numerical values.
NUMERICAL METHODS IN GeostatisticsGeostatistics is a collection of numerical techniques related to the characterization of spatial attributes, especially applying random models in the same manner as daret time analysis of temporal data (Olea, 1999).Geostatistics is a method that has proven reliable for estimating the various types of mining. Lately various applications successfully applied in the petroleum industry (petroleum), especially for the manufacture of contour as well as modeling and simulation of the internal heterogeneity of the reservoir-reservoir. Applications in other fields including environmental sciences, hydrogeology, agriculture, fisheries and even, where the time component as well as spatial changes become very important. Basic tools in geostatistics, ie variogram, is used to quantify the spatial correlation between observations. Mathematical models have been fit out the experimental variogram, this model can be used to estimate the values ​​at points not sampled (not known). The procedure is referred to as kriging estimation, after Danie Krige (South Africa) and Herbert Sichel developed the Witwatersrand gold mines.Geostatistics was originally developed in the mineral industry to perform the calculation of mineral reserves, such as gold, silver, platinum. D.K. Krige, a South African mining engineer, brought the issue from the point of view of probabilistic later by George Matheron, an engineer from the Ecoles des Mines, Fontainebleau, France, giving attention to the work of Krige and apply probabilistic and statistical theory to formulate the approach in the calculation of reserves Krige ore, known as the kriging method.In further developments many multivariate statistical applications included in geostatistics, such as trend surface analysis, cluster analysis, factor analysis, diskriminant analysis, and principle component analysis. Even today, a method which is not based on probabilistic theory used for analysis in the field of earth science, for example basing on fuzzy logic set theory known as Theory of fuzzy sets as in the method of FCM (Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis). This method is now widely used for petrographic analysis, porosity and permeability modeling, and GIS.Practical application of geostatistics can now be said to infinity. Each experiment was made within the framework of space (such as data in the coordinate space and value) to use geostatistics as a tool to process and interpret. What makes the geostatistical very useful is its ability to characterize in terms of application of spatial structure with a consistent probabilistic model. Spatial structure is characterized by the variogram. Basically, there are two kinds of methods that are based on the variogram and covariance are available, namely:for mapping and estimation, variogram can be used for interpolating between data points (kriging), andto characterize the uncertainty in the estimation (the volume of petroleum, levels above the cut-off, the risk of pollution), the same variogram can be used.As a basic science, there are no limits on the use of geostatistics for a particular field. Geostatistics can be used in the following areas: mining industry (was originally developed), as well as petroleum, environment, meteorology, geophysics, agriculture and fisheries, marine, earth science, physics of heterogeneous media, civil engineering, accounting, and perhaps astrophysics.Some examples of geostatistical applications in mining:Estimate the total reserves,Estimating error,Calculating the optimal sampling distance,Estimating block,Contour mapping and manufacture of the grid,Simulate the deposit for the planning,Estimate the recovery area.
Program 'open source' Geostatistics and numericalCurrently, the development programs based on open source is very fast, even faster than we can say the program proprietary. The meaning of open source programs are the programs provided by the application source code, which the user can be edited, modified for specific purposes. These programs are freely available on the Internet. Source code for earth science application programs can be downloaded from its website the International Association of Mathematical Geology ( Various open source program that can be used for geological data processing, among others, can be seen in the following table.

Kind of Program Analysis(Licensed GPL) DescriptionNumerical Analysis Root, Scilab, and Rlab program is to process a rather complex data, eg for modeling.Geostatistical R-stat with geo-R, Gstat, Uncert, and Delivery program is to process statistics from univariate to multivariate geostatistical module has been completed.
In addition, among the various programs GIS (Geographic Information System), one of the most popular on the market today for the analysis is the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst geostatistikal (see website: / geostatisticalanalyst). ArcgGIS Geostatisticalanalyst is a bridge to connect the geostatistical with GIS analysis, mainly to explore and generate spatial data in a statistical surface. Three main scope of the ability of ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst is to: (1) exploratory spatial data analysis, (2) Creation of spatial surface information, and (3) Diagnosi and comparative prediction models.
Among the many benefits of ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst is applied in the following areas.:· Archaeology· Environmental Protection· Geology exploratory· Forestry· Hydrology· Meteorology· Mining

How to Use a Garmin GPSMAP 60CSx

In this article, I will try to give little tips and tricks on one of them is the use of GPS Garmin GPSMAP 60CSx.It has long been writing, but published only today (already long in the computer means ... ... ...) with the consideration that this article is only used for personal purposes rather than commercial."If if if if" (the length of om ....) there are shortcomings or mistakes in writing, please comment for improvement ... if the article helps .... hell his comments also do not forget (a little praise Alhamdulillah .. .. hehehe)This article will be published periodically in some parts (let the reader have a little curiosity so you know ..)okay, we started ... ... ...

Garmin GPSMAP 60 CSX is a tool most widely used in Indonesia because of the level of accuracy in determining the position with a tolerance of between 5 to 15 meters (assuming a gain of more than 3 satellite signals). The use of the Garmin GPSMAP 60 CSX very easy, because it already comes with a few navigation buttons and menu options quickly. Types of GPS can also be used for various purposes such as for surveys, find out the sunrise and sunset, predicts the number of fish in one location, know the circulation of the moon and sun, and others.Function keys Garmin GPSMAP 60 CSX:1. The "IN" and "OUT"a. In Map view: used to zoom in and out of the map (Zoom in and zoom out).b. At Compass Views: used to change the course scale pointerc. On Display Altimeter: used to zoom in and zoom out history / changes in altitude or air pressure.2. Button "PAGE"Used to move to move to several major applications of GPS. By default, when the first ignition, the GPS will display satellite images. After the page button is pressed, it will move to the next screen suitable arrangement, such as compass, altimeter, the main menu (main menu), or the trip computer3. Button "MENU"Menu button has several functions:a. If pressed 1 times, it will display the menu options on the application being performed.b. If pressed 2 times, it will display the main menu.4. The "ENTR"Used to approve the choice or request given by the GPS.5. Button "QUIT"Used to cancel a choice or request given by the GPS. If pressed when not given the option (in the form of "yes and no" or "ok"), then pressing this button will be inversely proportional to the page (switch to several applications in the opposite)6. The "FIND"Used to find something that aa in the vicinity. When the "FIND" button is pressed, it will be raised several options, such as waypoints, geocache, cities, All Point of Interest, and others.7. Button "MARK"Used to indicate on a map where the GPS is located. This sign can be used as an initial benchmark measurement or as a marker coordinates.8. Button the right, left, up and down (Rocker button)Used to select the available options and to enter data or the pointing map.9. Button "POWER"Press and hold Used to turn on or turn off the GPS. Press then release to set the backlight (the light on the GPS)
How to Use the Garmin GPSMAP 60CSx 2This he continued from part 1 in the article "How to Use the Garmin GPSMAP 60CSx" please read it goes ... ...The following menus will be explained on the GPS and its functions.1. Menu "Satellite"When first turned on, GPS will display the satellite menu. Where in this menu are shown in the status of satellite reception. To get a good satellite signal (large signal strength) then the GPS must be outside with no obstructions to the sky, and sunny weather. or it could be by adding an external antenna that plugs into your GPS device. Make sure that the GPS acquire a minimum of 3 satellite signals, the status of this acceptance can be seen on the bar below the circle the satellite. Satellite signals that can be used that is the bar that contains, not a white bar.After the signal obtained is sufficient, then at the top of the screen will show us the coordinates of latitude and longitude position and the position tolerance shown by the "location". If the location shows the ± 10m, meaning the GPS to predict the location we are in a radius of 10 meters from the coordinate position indicated by GPS.In the center, there are two circles that large and small circles. The second circle represents the sky. Small circle mean radius of our vision to the sky by 45 °. Large circle, representing our vision into the sky at 180 degrees. Satellite image with respective numbers scattered around the large and small circle represents the satellite position at that time.2. Menu "MAP (Map)"When selecting this menu, will appear on the map as if we look at a map in general. The difference is that there is a black triangle in the middle of the map is displayed. This triangle shows the position we are on the surface of the earth and the GPS directions. On the menu map, we can measure the distance of a point with another point by pressing the Rokr. We can also see the direction of navigation when searching a site.3. Menu "Trip Computer"In this menu, there are the numbers to know: Trip Odom, max speed, moving time, moving avg, stopped, averall avg, elevation, odometer. The function above can search their own understanding4. Menu "Compass"Almost all GPS features a digital compass. Compass is the same as an analog compass in general. Any time will do the survey, this compass should always be in calibration. Due to this compass using a digital system, so that the appointment would be a mistake if it is on hold with the equipment containing the magnetic field. On the compass menu, there is also some information that is used at the time of survey5. Menu "altimeter"On the menu altimeter, there are 2 functions, namely to measure the elevation (altimeter), and to measure the air pressure (barometer). On the measurement of elevation, will be shown that in measuring our height above sea level. While the measurement of air pressure, air pressure will be shown around the unit is calculated using millibars.6. Main MenuIn this menu, displayed some other GPS functions that do not appear when we press the button page. Usually displayed on this menu, is a facility that is rarely used.
How to Use the Garmin GPSMAP 60CSx 3Here's the basic use of GPS will be given prior to the survey, or some other GPS functions.1. Compass CalibrationCompass calibration is necessary because GPS uses an electronic compass, which would occur if the GPS error appointment already / ever having contact with the goods that emit a magnetic field like CellPhone, Display Monitors, Television, Compass and other standards. How to calibrate the compass, namely:- Turn on the GPS- Press the page several times until the image appears on-screen compass.- Press menu, then select Calibrate "compass", then press enter.- Select start to start the calibration.- When it says "Turn Slowly," turn right towards the GPS slowly (ONLY WAY TO RIGHT) as much as 2 full rotations.after 2 full rotations performed, the screen will display the words "Callibration Completed Successfully". If it does not appear, the calibration process has not been carried out correctly. Repeat step 3. press Enter to display the compass.2. Altimeter CalibrationCalibration is also necessary to know the height of a land where we are. Should altimeter calibration is done at sea (should at the beach, may also in port), because the GPS took the benchmark elevation from sea level.- Turn on the GPS- Press the page several times until the altimeter display appears on the screen- Press menu, then select "Calibrate the altimeter" and then press enter.- If you already are near the sea, select yes and enter your height when performing calibration.- After entering the altitude, then continued with the calibration of air pressure. If you know the current air pressure, can choose yes, contrary to select no if you do not know the current air pressure.If not done altimeter calibration, the GPS will automatically use the GPS elevation obtained from the satellite. This is only an approximate elevation of the satellite.