III. IMAGE PROCESSING A. Enabling Courses ER Mapper     o From the Windows 95 or Windows 98 or Windows other non-switch / close all other programs (if any)
       and disable the screen saver program (if any).      o From the Start menu select Programs and then select ER Mapper - ER Mapper will display the image as

                                                             Figure 6. Main Menu ER Mapper
o Or from desktop computers to look for the shortcut icon like picture below, then click two times, so also 

   will show the menu as above. 

     software used. Data conversion is the conversion of one data format into another format, this can be done      by doing the import and export data. Data on import and export there are 2 types of raster data and
     vector data. While the storage of remote sensing data can be stored in magnetic tapes, CD ROMs,     floppy disks, zip drives, or other storage media,    Raster data is one type of input data for data processing. Raster data include satellite data, aerial      photography, digital terrain model (DTM), seismic data and geophysical data. When we import a raster
    image data file (using the program importing ER Mapper), ER Mapper converts the data and make it into
    two files:
 1. Binary data files that contain raster data in BIL format (Binary Interleaved by Line).  2. Head of the file (header) ASCII data with the extension *. ers     
     Note: Header is a very important file because it stores all the information that we import data, such as:
     original data format, datum, the number of bands, etc.. This header can be opened with WordPad
     program. Data vectors are one type of input data that is stored in the form of lines, points, and polygons.
     Suppose the data generated by the software ARC / INFO. Data on import vector is then stored into 2
3. ASCII data files that contain vector data 4. Head of the file (header) ASCII data with the extension *. erv Before we perform the import or export data, there are some things that should be known by the data we get for this process to be done. The information must be known are: e. The data in the format of what software and by extension what. Examples of data that we obtain from LAPAN Data Bank with 7.5 Erdas format with the extension *. lan. Or data with Erdas Imagine 8.2 format with *. img extension. So with this information we are able to perform the data conversion process throughout the software that we use a conversion facility from that format. f. Data format, whether our data in the format of BIL, BSQ, or BIP, then the binary or ASCI, the length of the columns and rows, number of bands, whether the file type multi-band single file or multiple files single band and the number headerya. These data are usually very we need inside. perform the conversion process in order to choose the type of conversion that we need and the parameters that must be inserted during the conversion process. ERMapper 6.4 has a relatively complete conversion facilities in the importing of data but are limited to export data into other software formats. Work Steps: o From the Utilities menu bar option that will display various types of data that can be imported by ER
   Mapper. o To convert from the Erdas LAN format, select Import Image formats and then select Erdas 7.5 HEAD74 o Click on Import, and will exit the display as follows:
o Click the Import File / Device Name to select the files to be imported, by clicking on the new dialog box

   will pop up the Input File Selection box. Then select the directory that contains files to be imported as an
   example D: \ Remote Sensing \ TM980126G.lan, the picture shows the directory that should be in double-
   click to open it, while the picture shows a file, that file will look like TM980126G.lAN TM980126G.lan in
   the dialog box.

o Files can also be imported directly taken from the CD-ROM, so no need to first copy the file to your hard

   disk but the input files directly from CD-ROM directory. o Click the Output Dataset Name to place the imported dataset, by clicking on the new dialog box will pop
   up the Output Dataset Selection box similar to the Input File Selection dialog box. Then select the directory    to be conditioned new file name (look for the directory can use the arrow) as an example D: \ Remote
   Sensing \, then type the new file name for example BS980126.ers, (note: the writing of the extension. Ers
   after the file name can not be written as ER Mapper will automatically assign additional. ers after the file    name). o Select the Geodetic Datum and Map Projection if the imported data is in conformity with the position on
   earth. If the data is imported, the original data sets with Geodetic Projection Map Projection with RAW     and RAW. o Click OK

   of the window or display previously created. o The display will appear Algorithm boxes and boxes of new window as follows:
o In the box there is written image window
In the box there is no image because there is no image file is inserted. *** Signs show window / box that is on or is being selected, the number 1 indicates that the window box is the first box was opened, this figure will increase by the amount of window boxes are opened so that when we open the box to 15 will display item 15 in view. Posts Algorithm Savedberarti Not Yet we see this window open has not been saved in a file algorithm (. ALG).
o From the menu click on the image above algorithm under the word No dataset to load the data to be
   displayed. o Will come out a new look, a box Raster Dataset
o Then select the data to be displayed then we select the file in the highlights and the box will close the Raster
   dataset means that we select the file in raster dataset highlights and the box will not close. Layer only this
   sentence that follows the word OK and Apply indicate that this command only affects the selected layer
   only but not for all the layers.
   is a command to show information from a dataset file which will we choose, it would appear like the
   following boxes
o If the data is original data, then the cell size x and y will be worth 1 meters.
This value should we change 
   the subject to our spatial resolution Landsat-TM that is 30 meters, by clicking. It will then appear:
o Then click the new box will appear
o Then click the new box will appear
o Fill in the value of 30 on option Xdimension and Ydimension like the example above, then click OK. o Click Yes if you have any questions Save changes before closing the editor? o The value of x and y cell size will change to 30 meters, then click Cancel. o After we select the data file, and then we determine what the layer will display the data. When you've 
   selected, then the file name will be shown in the box algorithm
o show selected layer on the active file and will be displayed on the screen (example above shows the band
   1 as a layer selected). By clicking the down arrow beside the text B1: Band1 it will seem all the layers that
   exist in the file (in this case are 7 bands of Landsat-TM) as the example above. o Set the type of layer which will be used to display data that has been loaded, some options are provided
   Pseudo layer, Red, Green, Blue, Intensity, Height, etc..
To know the type of layer can be by right-clicking
   the Pseudo Layer sentence will appear
o Signs • indicate the type layer selected. o To display the 542 channel combinations for instance, then create three layers namely Red, Green, and
   Blue o To display the classification results, then create a Class Display layer o To display the Pseudo Color, then create a layer Pseudo
Note: o To change the type of layer right click on the layer to be replaced. o To duplicate a layer click the Duplicate or copy and paste layer layer o To remove the layer click on the cut layer o To Turn off the layer, right click and then select Turn Off or click o Image and to raise and lower the layer level
D. Preparing and Showing Image Composite Color o Open the Algorithm window, and fill datasetnya. o In the menu on the Algorithm window, click the Advanced Surface Color Mode and change it into Red
   Green Blue. o Click Duplicate twice to make two lines by the first row dataset. Now there are three rows of the same
   dataset in the control line Pseudocolor. o In the first line replace Pseudo with right mngklik line in question and select Red, and then select the band /
   channel you want on the Select a band, ie band 4. o In the second row do the same as point 4 and replace Pseudo with Green, select the desired band, eg
   bands 3. o In the third line replace Pseudo with Blue and select the desired band, ie band 2. o In the window will appear RGB image with a slightly darker appearance. o To provide a better contrast, click the button. Another way to create a composite image is through the
   Forestry Toolbar icon and click the Create RGB Algorithm. o Fill in the dataset that will be created RGB image of her, and then click OK. o The composite image is formed usually by a combination of the band 321, to change it open the Algorithm window, and change the combination. Set Default Surface type that will be used to display data that has been loaded, some options are provided Pseudocolor Surface, Red Green Blue, Hue Saturation Intensity. To know the type of layer can by right clicking on Default Surface sentence as shown below:
o Alerts - indicate the type of the selected Default Surface o Surface by clicking the Set Default Red Green Blue, o Create layers Red, Green, and Blue, activate the third layer in
o Select the desired channel combinations, the following example shows a combination of channel 542 (B5: 
   Band5 - Red Layer, B4: Band4 - Green Layer, B2: Band2 - Blue Layer)
C. Displaying Images After importing the image data, the next stages is to display the image on the computer screen to evaluate the quality and image of local geography. If the data is of poor quality or the desired area is not covered we may decide not to continue processing the data and try to display another image data better. There are several ways that can be used to view the image, namely pseudocolor, red green blue (RGB), hue saturation intensity (HIS), which are all named as the display color composition. In ER Mapper color selection to display raster data named premises 'color mode'. In this exercise, the 3rd way of displaying the image will be on trial all, and compared with the existing appearance of each image produced. Pseudocolor mode is a single-image display technique, while the RGB mode is a composite technique. Preparation of the composite image is intended to obtain a better visual image as well as view infrared aerial photographs, so the observation of objects, sample selection, and aesthetic aspects of the image can be improved. In making this composite image, the input channel (input) can be changed in accordance with the needs analysis. Such a composite image called a composite image is not standard. While the standard composite image is an image formed from the fusion line with the reference near infrared aerial photography. Work Steps: o From the menubar choose File - New to create a blank look or a click. o From the menubar select View / algorithm, or from the toolbar click to display the contents of the algorithm
B. Import and Data Format Conversion      The first step in image processing is to convert the data so that data can be read and recognized by the