Global Warming is the increase of temperature average of the atmosphere, ocean and land earth. Global average temperature at Earth's surface has risen 0:18 Â ° C over the last hundred years. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that, "most of the increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is most likely caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases due to human activity through the greenhouse effect.
Increasing global temperatures are expected to lead to other changes such as rising sea levels, increased intensity of extreme weather events, as well as changes in the number and pattern of precipitation. Consequences of global warming is terpengaruhnya other crops, the loss of glaciers and the extinction of various animal species. Most of the governments of countries in the world have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol, which leads to the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases.
Some of the causes of global warming or Global Warming
A. The greenhouse effect
All energy sources that exist on Earth comes from the Sun. Most of the energy in the form of short-wave radiation, including visible light. When this energy on Earth's surface, he turned from the light into heat that warms the Earth. Earth's surface, will absorb some heat and reflecting back the rest. Much of this heat as long-wave infrared radiation into space. But some of the heat remains trapped in Earth's atmosphere due to accumulated amount of greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane which trap this radiation. These gases absorb and reflect radiation emitted waves of the earth and consequently heat is stored in the Earth's surface. This happens over and over and result in annual average temperature of the earth continues to increase. Gases serve as the glass in a greenhouse. With the increasing concentration of these gases in the earth, the more heat is trapped underneath. Actually, the greenhouse effect is needed by all living things on earth, because without it, the planet will be very cold. So the ice will cover the entire surface of the Earth. However, due to the amount of these gases has been excess in the atmosphere, global warming are the result.

2.Efek feedback
The effects of global warming-causing agents is also influenced by various feedback processes that result. An example is the evaporation of water. In the case of warming due to increasing greenhouse gases such as CO2, warming will initially lead to more amount of water that evaporates into the atmosphere. Because water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, warming will continue and increase the amount of water vapor in the air to reach an equilibrium concentration of water vapor. The resulting greenhouse effect is greater than the effect of CO2 alone. (Although this feedback increases the absolute water content in the air, relative humidity of air is almost constant or even decreases slightly because the air becomes warmer). This feedback can only be reversed slowly as CO2 has a long age in the atmosphere.
Feedback effects due to the influence of clouds is the object of current research. When viewed from below, clouds will reflect infrared radiation back to the surface, thereby increasing the heating effect. In contrast when viewed from above, clouds will reflect sunlight and infrared radiation to space, thereby increasing the cooling effect. Whether the net effect heating or cooling depending on some specific details such as the type and height of these clouds. These details are difficult to be represented in climate models, partly because the clouds are very small compared to the distance between the boundaries of computational climate models (about 125 to 500 km to the model used in the Fourth Report of the IPCC view
Another important feedback is the loss of the ability to reflect light (albedo) by es.Ketika global temperatures increase, ice near the poles melts at an ever increasing. Together with the melting of the ice, land or water below will open. Both land and water has the ability to reflect light much less when compared to the ice, and consequently will absorb more solar radiation. This will increase the heating and causing even more ice melts, it becomes a continuous cycle.
Positive feedback due to release of CO2 and CH4 from the softening of frozen ground (permafrost) are other mechanisms that contribute to warming. In addition, the melting ice will also cause release of CH4 are also positive feedback.
The ability of oceans to absorb carbon will also be reduced if it warms up, this is caused by a decline in nutrient levels in the zone and limit the growth of diatoms Mesopelagic than phytoplankton is low carbon sinks.
3.Variasi Sun
There is a hypothesis which states that the variation of the Sun, with a possibility reinforced by feedback from the clouds, can contribute to warming. Difference between the heating mechanism is due to the greenhouse effect is the increased activity of the Sun would heat the stratosphere reverse the greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere. Cooling the lower stratosphere has been observed since at least 1960, which will not occur when the solar activity to be a major contributor to recent warming. (Depletion of the ozone layer may also provide the cooling effect, but depletion occurred from late 1970's.) The phenomenon of solar variability combined with volcanic activity may have provided the warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950, as well as a cooling effect since 1950 .
Impact of Global Warming
A. Weather
Scientists predict that during global warming, the northern part of the Northern Hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere) will heat up more than other regions on Earth. Consequently, the icebergs will melt and the land will shrink. Will be less ice will float on northern oceans. Areas that previously experienced mild snow, probably will not experience it again. In the mountains in temperate regions, the snow-covered will be less and will melt faster. Growing season will be longer in some areas. Temperatures in winter and at night would tend to increase. Warmer regions will become more humid as more water evaporates from the ocean. Scientists are not quite sure whether the humidity will actually increase or decrease the warming even further. This is because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, so its presence will increase the insulation effect on the atmosphere. However, more water vapor will also form more clouds, so it would reflect sunlight back into space, where it will reduce the heating process (see the water cycle). High humidity will increase rainfall, on average, about 1 percent for every degree Fahrenheit of warming. (Rainfall in the world has increased by 1 percent in the last hundred years). Storms will become more frequent. In addition, the water will evaporate more quickly from the ground. As a result, some areas will become drier than before. The winds blow harder and perhaps with a different pattern. Typhoon (hurricane) which draws its strength from the evaporation of water, will become larger. Contrary to the warming that occurred, some very cold periods may occur. Weather patterns become more extreme and unpredictable.
2. Sea level
Changes in average height is measured from sea level to the area geologically stable environment. As the atmosphere warms, the surface layer of the oceans will also warm, so the volume will expand and raise the sea level. Warming will also melt much glacier ice, especially around Greenland, which further increase the volume of water in the ocean. Sea levels worldwide rose 10-25 cm (4-10 inches) during the 20th century, and IPCC scientists predict a further rise of 9-88 cm (4-35 inches) in the 21st century. Changes in sea levels will profoundly affect the lives in coastal areas. Increase of 100 cm (40 inches) would submerge 6 percent of the Netherlands, 17.5 percent of the Bangladesh, and many islands. Erosion of cliffs, beaches and dunes will increase. When the high seas reach estuaries, tidal flooding due to increase in the mainland. Rich countries will spend huge funds to protect coastal areas, while poor countries may only be able to evacuate from the area pantai.Bahkan little sea level rise will affect coastal ecosystems. Increase of 50 cm (20 inches) would submerge half of coastal marshes in the United States. New marshes will also be formed, but not in urban areas and areas that have been built. This sea level rise will cover much of the Florida Everglades.
3. Agriculture
One might assume that a warmer Earth will produce more food than ever before, but it is actually not the same in several places. Southern parts of Canada, for example, may benefit from the higher rainfall and better growing season length. On the other hand, the semiarid tropical farmlands in some parts of Africa may not be able to grow. Desert farm regions that use irrigation water from distant mountains may suffer if the snowpack (snow collection) winter, which serves as a natural reservoir, would melt before the peak growing season months. Crop and forest insect and can experience a more severe disease.
4. Animals and plants
Animals and plants are living things that are difficult to avoid the effects of warming because most of the land has been controlled by humans. In global warming, animals tend to migrate toward the poles and up mountains. Plants will change the direction of growth, looking for new areas as old habitats grow too warm. However, human development will impede this movement. Species migrate north or south is blocked by the cities or agricultural lands may be dead. Several types of species that are not able to rapidly move toward the poles may also be destroyed.
5. Human health
In a world of warm, scientists predict that more people will get sick or die from heat stress. Diseases that are commonly found in tropical areas, such as diseases caused by mosquitoes and other disease-carrying animals, will widen as they move into regions formerly too cold for them. Currently, 45 percent of world population lives in areas where they might get bitten by mosquitoes carrying the malaria parasite; that percentage will increase to 60 percent if temperatures rise. Other tropical diseases may spread like malaria, such as dengue fever, yellow fever, and encephalitis. Scientists also predict rising incidence of allergies and respiratory diseases as warmer air charged with pollutants, mold spores and pollen.
Control of global warming solutions
Total consumption of fossil fuels in the world is increasing. Steps taken or are being discussed at this time no one can prevent global warming in the future. The current challenge is to overcome the effects that arise while taking steps to prevent the changing climate in the future. Severe damage can be overcome in various ways. Coastal areas can be protected by walls and barriers to prevent entry of sea water. Alternatively, the government can help the population in coastal areas to move to higher ground. Some countries, such as the United States, can save plants and animals while maintaining the corridor (line) habitat, clear the land that has not been built from south to north. Species can move slowly along the corridor is to go to a cooler habitat.
There are two main approaches to slow the increase in greenhouse gases.

1.Menghilangkan carbon
The easiest way to remove carbon dioxide in the air is to maintain trees and plant more trees. Trees, especially the young and fast growing, very much to absorb carbon dioxide, break through photosynthesis and store carbon in wood. Around the world, the rate of forest encroachment has reached an alarming level. Measures to combat this is with the role of reforestation in reducing the increasing greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide gas can also be removed immediately. You do this by injecting (injecting) the gas into oil wells to push the oil out to the surface (see Enhanced Oil Recovery). Injection can also be made to isolate it in underground gas as in oil wells, coal seams or aquifers. This has been done in one of Norway's offshore drilling rig, in which carbon dioxide is brought to the surface with natural gas is captured and injected back into the aquifer so it can not go back to the surface.
One source contributor of carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels. At that time, coal became the dominant energy source for later replaced by oil in the mid-19th century. In the 20th century, began regular gas energy used worldwide as an energy source. Change of trend in the use of fossil fuels is actually indirectly have reduced the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air, because the gas release less carbon dioxide compared to oil especially when compared with coal. However, the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy further reduces the release of carbon dioxide into the air. Nuclear energy, although controversial for reasons of safety and hazardous wastes, did not even release carbon dioxide at all.

International cooperation is needed to succeed in reducing greenhouse gases. In 1992, the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 150 countries pledged to confront the problem of greenhouse gases and agreed to translate this intent in a binding contract. In 1997 in Japan, 160 countries to formulate a stronger agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol.
This agreement, which has not been implemented, calls for 38 industrialized countries that hold the greatest percentage in the release of greenhouse gases to cut their emissions to levels 5 percent below 1990 emission. This reduction must be achieved no later than 2012. At first, the United States volunteered to do a more ambitious cuts, promising to reduce emissions by 7 percent below 1990 levels; the European Union, which wants a tougher treaty, committed 8 percent and Japan 6 percent. The remaining 122 other countries, most developing countries, are not required to commit to the reduction of gas emissions.
However, in 2001, the new U.S. president-elect, George W. Bush announced that an agreement for the reduction of carbon dioxide is a very large cost. He also denied the claim that developing countries are not burdened with it carbon dioxide reduction requirements. Kyoto Protocol does not affect anything if the industrialized countries are responsible accounted for 55 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 did not ratify it. It successfully met the requirements as of 2004, Russian President Vladimir Putin ratified this agreement, provide an avenue for entry into force of this agreement began February 16, 2005.
Many people criticized the Kyoto Protocol too weak. Even if the agreement is implemented immediately, it will only slightly reduce the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A harsh measures will be needed later on, especially as developing countries are excluded from this agreement will result in half of the greenhouse gas emissions by 2035. Opponents of this protocol has a very strong position. The rejection of this treaty in the United States primarily raised by the oil industry, coal industry and other companies whose production depends on fossil fuels. Opponents claim that the economic costs required to implement the Kyoto Protocol can menjapai 300 billion U.S. dollars, mainly due to energy costs. Instead the Kyoto Protocol supporters believe that the only cost required by 88 billion U.S. dollars and may be more or less again, and returned in the form of saving money after the change to the equipment, vehicles, and industrial processes more efficient. In a country with strict environmental policy, the economy can continue to grow despite various kinds of pollution have been reduced. However, to limit emissions of carbon dioxide proved to be difficult.
For example, the Netherlands, the big industrialists are also pioneers of the environment, has successfully overcome various kinds of pollution but failed to meet its target in reducing the production karbondioksida.Setelah 1997, the representatives of the signatories of the Kyoto Protocol met regularly to negotiate issues unresolved such as rules, methods and penalties that must be applied to any country to slow greenhouse gas emissions. Negotiators designing the system in which a country that has a successful cleaning program can take advantage by selling unused pollution rights to other countries. This system is called carbon trading. For example, state that the results are difficult to increase again, like the Netherlands, could buy pollution credits on the market, which can be obtained with a lower cost. Russia, the countries benefiting when the system is implemented. In 1990, the Russian economy is lousy and greenhouse gas emissions is very high. Because then the Russians managed to cut its emissions by more than 5 percent below 1990 levels, he is in a position to sell emission credits to other industrial countries, especially those in the European Union.
Global Warming is a history of the worst experienced by the earth since the inception to the present.
Some other ways to reduce and prevent the effects of Global Warming:
Energy frugality. As in the use of fuel oil, electricity (do not use electronic devices when not obvious needs).
Using a motor vehicle as needed. If it were just close, no need to use a motorcycle or car.
Reduce arson. For example, the burning of garbage, avoid forest fires.
Avoid the use of redundant goods
For marine ecosystems, avoid destruction of corals and fish by destructive searching (the use of bombs or the like)