NOAA satellite earth station is a polar orbiting weather satellite, NOAA operates in LAPAN, Jakarta detect the entire surface of the earth. As a result, angle and direction of its orbit is not equal to the speed and direction of the turn of the earth. Satellites NOAA (National Oceanic Atmosferic Administration) operates at an altitude of 850 km above the earth's surface.
Satellite Meteorology NOAA satellite is the third generation's "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration" (NOAA) of USA. The emergence of these satellites to replace the previous generation of satellites, such as the series of TIROS (Television and Infra Red Observation Sattelite, years 1960-1965) and the series IOS (Infra Red Observation Sattelite, years 1970-1976). NOAA satellite configuration is at an altitude of 833-870 km orbit, inclination of about 98.7 ° - 98.9 °, have the sensing capability of an area of ​​2 x in 24 hours (day and night).

NOAA satellite is to obtain reliable information about the physical state of the sea / ocean and atmosphere. NOAA series is equipped with 6 (six) sensors, namely:
A. AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer),
2. TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sonde),
3. HIRS (High Resolution Infrared Sounder (part of the TOVS),
4. DCS (Data Collection System),
5. SEM (Space Environment Monitor),
6. SARSAT (Search And Rescue Sattelite System).

Between 6 (six) on the main sensor, the sensor is relevant to monitoring the Earth is AVHRR sensor with the ability to monitor the five channels starting from channel appears (visible band) through the channel far infrared (far infrared band). Period for one orbit for satellites NOAA is 102 minutes, so that every day approximately 14.1 mengasilkan orbit. Orbit numbers are not even caused a sub-orbital track is repeated daily on the line though at the time of recording the data does not change its local time in the latitude.
In general, AVHRR sensor has the following characteristics:
• The sensitivity of thermal infra-red channel at 300 K 0.12 K
• The number of pixels as many as 1024
• IFOV (Instantaneous Field of View) was 1.3 ± 0.1 rad m
• Resolution is the smallest at 1.1 x 1.1 km
• Wide coverage / sweep is 2590 km
• FOV (Field of View) is 55.4 °
• Speed-line (line rate) is 360 lines per minute
• Speed ​​of data (line data) is 665.4 x 103 bps

AVHRR sensor consists of five channels (bands) with a specific wavelength. Based on the type of observation and the wavelength used by NOAA satellites can be seen in Table 1. below:

Table 1. Channel name, Wavelength, Spectrum and Type of Sensing
NOAA AVHRR Satellite Remote Sensor
Channel Wavelength (μm) Regional
Observations of the spectrum
A 0.56 to 0.68 Looks • albedo during the day, (the mapping of cloud)
• Monitoring of ice and snow weather
2 0.73 - 1:10
Looks to the near infrared
• Monitoring the development of plant
3 3.55 to 3.93 Infrared center • nighttime cloud mapping
• Measurement of surface temperature
• Distinguish between land and sea
• Monitoring of volcanic activity
• Monitoring the spread of volcanic dust
4 from 10.5 to 11.5 Infrared remote • day and night cloud mapping
• Measurements of sea surface temperature
• The study of ground water for agriculture
5 11.5 to 12.5 Infrared remote • Mapping of the day and night
• Measurements of sea surface temperature
• ground water and agricultural research

NOAA also has software that is known as NOM (NOAA Operations Manager) developed by the Environmental Sciences Department (ESD) at the NRI (Natural Resources Institute) based in the UK. The software is designed to be able to cope and adjust the problems in the system calendar and time on the computer that is caused by the millennium bug. NOM is a system that is different from previous systems, in which the Windows-based operating system.
The design of NOM can be used to:
• Provide a data merging, enabling the user or operator, is also an operational tool that can filter the data received by NOAA.
• NOM provides a common data export facilities and simple enough to be adapted to the software used for Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and image processing.
In operation, NOM is not a system that is used as a NOAA satellite data receiving device, or devices used for GIS applications, but only the software to process data from NOAA satellite imagery, in hopes of giving the results or output that the better.

NOAA weather satellite is a satellite that serves to observe the environment and weather. These satellites are owned by the U.S. Department of Commerce, launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and is operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Indonesia is now in the atmosphere every day across the five series of NOAA, the NOAA-12, NOAA-14, NOAA-15, NOAA-16 and NOAA-17. NOAA satellite configuration is presented in the following figure:

Figure 2. The satellite configuration of NOAA (Jars, 1993)

AVHRR data from NOAA can be applied to analyze the parameters in the field of meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology. The combination use of multiple channels of data from AVHRR / NOAA can also be used for various applications, such as monitoring of vegetation, wildfires, albedo data extraction, data extraction temperature and sea surface temperature of land, agriculture, cloud coverage and the detection of snow / ice on the surface of the earth. In addition NOAA satellites are also used to monitor crop conditions in the United States, the influence of floods on agricultural crops in the Midwest in 1993 and early winter of 1995, severe drought in the wheat area in 1996, and late planting in 1996 in wheat production centers has been monitored using these data.
NOAA currently has the latest satellite series NOAA-N series with a code of ATN (Advanced TIROS-N) made by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). NOAA-N satellite has the following functions:
• Tools to monitor and analyze the image of the Earth's atmosphere, terrain, clouds, along with earth radiation, atmospheric ozone, aerosol dissemination, sea surface temperature, and temperature profiles along the water bertikal troposphere and stratosphere.
• Analyze the proton and electron fluxes at orbit altitude.
• Collection of data from the subject objectives.
• Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system.

A. Satellites NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) can be used to monitor the state of the earth for the purpose of hydrology, oceanography and meteorology, including monitoring of forest fires.
2. Has a spatial resolution of 1100 x 1100 m with a very wide coverage and a series of NOAA polar meteorological satellites have very long operational history.
3. NOAA satellite detection geothermal geothermal properties that capture heat even though it was not because of the fires can also be monitored. During the day, NOAA will detect heat at 42o C temperature threshold, it is nighttime satellite capable of detecting heat threshold temperature at 37o C.
4. Processing of NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery as a remote sensing satellite images with low spatial resolution and has the advantage that the daily temporal resolution. NOAA ground stations receive data from the AVHRR satellite raw data in a form known as a data HRPT (High Resolution Picture Transmission) on a regular basis 2-4 times / day. Therefore, the daily cycle of NOAA's good enough to observe changes in the ocean with a spatial resolution limited to 1.1 km. Image coverage broad enough to reach the 2399 km wide view on every global image is generated.
A. Conditions of use of NOAA-AVHRR satellites are highly dependent on the weather. Given the weakness of this satellite, it is necessary to combine this satellite with another satellite data to apply, so the estimate, which the region is closer to the actual fishing ground.
2. In general hotspot interpretation NOAA satellite has three sources of inaccuracy, namely (1) position (angle) as it passes by the NOAA satellite receiving station (2) The effects of the object surface of the earth to the NOAA satellite sensors such as surface water, a sandy barren land, the earth's surface containing relatively high metal (3) geometric correction of NOAA's image of itself.

The following describes one application using NOAA satellites as a product. Indonesia is an archipelagic country is very large, has a vast sea waters to 5.9 million km2 and is very rich in biodiversity. One type of marine biodiversity that has a high economic value as an export commodity and widely spread in the waters of Indonesia.
In the future, the prospects for the development of fisheries Indonesia became one of the strategic and economic activities considered bright. It is also possible because of the changing behavior of the world community that experienced a shift in consumption patterns to fishery products and seafood. In addition, the limited ability of the world's supply of fish would make the fish as one of the strategic commodities of the world.
The main problems encountered in the utilization of marine fishery resources of Indonesia is difficult to determine the potential as a location for fishing (fishing ground). In general, fishermen in Indonesia are still using conventional methods, that only by using the five senses which is owned by the fishermen. Limitations of the senses in a suspected fishing ground of fishermen not only lead to inefficient use of fuel by 60% -70%, but also led to the concentration of fishing vessels in a specific location. As a result occurs in a particular area of ​​excessive exploitation (over fishing). If this is allowed to continue in a certain period sustainability of fishery resources will be disrupted, whereas in areas with considerable potential for fish just are not used optimally.
For that to be handled in a way that fishing activities to be effective, ie, by utilizing satellite data (NOAA) application of remote sensing data is currently available on the NOAA weather Indonesia.Satelit-USA that carry AVHRR sensors can also be used to assist the exploration marine resources. Satellite images produced can be analyzed and interpreted to determine the value and distribution of sea surface temperature in the water large enough to synoptic (covers all parts of Indonesia in just two consecutive tracks). Sea surface temperature is one indicator in determining the area of ​​fishing ground. The high frequency of observation (four track day) and operational costs are much cheaper when compared to other ways are the hallmarks of the utilization of remote sensing techniques.
Satellite observations will also be very useful for observation of oceanographic phenomena, especially upwelling and TEMPRATURE front which is an indicator of potential areas of high fish. Expected with the availability of such information will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of fishing in the sea.
NOAA is also a tool that supports the satellite microwave sensors that produce data of temperature, humidity, terrain and water. On a cloudy area on the sensor devices and infrared spectrum appears to have an unfavorable outcome.
Development of Earth Station Receiver Data NOAA / METOP

Data Processing System NOAA / METOP
 Hardware
PC or server with RAM and hard disk is large enough, Lancard, and Unix operating systems (linux).
 Software
Using a standard international module of AAPP EUMETSAT.
• NOAA Data Processing for the production of L1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d of the data input L0.
• Processing of data for the production of MetOp L1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d of the data input L0.
• Archiving of processed L1b data products, and L1d L1c.
 Product Release
• Display of data QL AVHRR (composite or BW), adjusted to the time of acquisition.
• Product level 0 refers to the NOAA HRPT HRPT NOAA standard level 0 which is compatible with AAPP module, and the products L0 Data MetOp.
• Products NOAA processed the data and data MetOp (L1b, L1c, L1d)