a. Taking the location of the Land
The location of the land is located in the Village District Karangjati Pandaan WordPress.
b. Place elevation
Karangjati the village including the village in the district that is located at an elevation Pandaan place 2-15 meters (BPS district Makati, 2008).
c. Vegetation Cover
Types of vegetation grow in the area of ​​the sample is a high-level trees, like mango, rambutan trees, and some dried plants are widely planted in front of the street and the front of houses.
d. Land forms
If seen by a morphologic, land form of the village district Karangjati Pandaan including landform denudasional because in some places there is a former erosion from areas of higher topography, the District Prigen.
e. Topography
Located on relatively flat slopes and slightly wavy, which is the area in the middle of WordPress. Slope height of between 6-91 meters.
f. According to the Köppen Climate types
Including climate type Aw / dry tropics with annual rainfall of 11.09 mm / day (BPS District. Pasuruan, 2008).
g. Parent rock (geology)
Based on information from data BPS Pasuruan (2008) regarding the geological conditions of the District of 500 Ha of land Pandaan vulcanik young quarter; 3677 the old quarter of Ha volcanic soil; 150 hectares of land plistosen sediments.
h. Land Use
Karangjati district land area. Pandaan Makati district are mostly used for industrial, residential and less for agriculture.

B. Practicum LAND
I. Soil density, and porosity Heavy Volume
A. Basic Theory
Soil type is a heavy weight of the soil in a unit volume of soil solids (gram/cm3). Weight of soil taken from the absolute dry weight (oven dry) land, so that the volume of soil solids obtained according to the law of Archimedes, which is an added volume of water after water incorporated into the soil. In this case the structure does not affect the texture and density.
Volume weight is the dry weight of a unit volume of soil in one piece. Dry weight is the weight of soil solids in absolutely dry conditions, but the volume of land used is the soil volume including pores space. Volume weight is determined by the amount of soil pore space (porosity) and soil solids, the greater the porosity, the smaller the volume weight.
Porosity of the soil is an index of relative pore volume, ie the ratio between pore volume (micro & macro) with the total volume. Porosity values ​​range from 30-60%.
Fine-textured soil will have a higher porosity than coarse-textured soils. According to the Hanafi (2005) that the weight content of the soil is a soil density per unit volume is expressed in the two following limits:
(1) The density of particles (particle weight = BP) is the weight of the mass of solid particles per unit volume of soil, soil typically has a particle density of 2.6 g cm-3, and
(2) The density of the mass (weight content = BI) is the weight of the land mass of field-dried condition ovenkan per unit volume.
Value of the land mass density is proportional to the level of roughness soil particles, the more rough will be more severe. Textured topsoil, clay and granular structure has a weight of contents (BI) of 1.0 g cm-3 up to 1.3 g cm-3, while the rough texture has a weight content of 1.3 g cm-3 up to 1.8 g cm-3.
2. Purpose
- Knowing the specific gravity, weight, volume and porosity of the soil
- Analyze the differences of the field results with existing theories
3. Tools and Materials

- Pumpkin measuring
- Scales
- + Refining a petri dish
- Pipette
- Mixer
- Soil samples
- Hot water
- Earth oven

4. Work steps
a. Retrieval of land with a ring coper, coper ring by planting on land to be used. In this case coper ring planting is done by the trampling feet, Lula dig around on the ground to take a coper ring which already contains the ground.
b. Mengoven ground for ± 48 hours, with temperatures up to 110 ° C
c. Heavy soil type of work the following steps:
A. Weigh flask
2. flask contents with earth oven that has been mashed and then weigh the total weight
3. add hot water up to a 100ml measure, then stir gently
4. measuring water in the flask.
d. Heavy volume and porosity:
A. Weigh coper ring + soil samples
2. Weigh the tube / paralon
3. paralon measure used
e. enter data
5. Measurement
No Land Information Nurul (Makati)
Pumpkin Measure 1 Weight 212.6 grams
2 Total Weight 283.7 grams
3 Heavy Soil = 283.7 to 212.6
= 71.1 grams
4 Volume Solids 30 cm3
5 The density of soil = 71.1 / 30
= 2.37 gr/cm3
6 Weight 44.5 grams of plastic gutter
7 Weight 107.9 grams of soil + paralon
8 dry weight of soil = 107.9 to 44.5
= 63.4 grams
9 The volume of soil = 3.14 x 1.152 x 9.8
= 40.7 cm3
10 Heavy volume = 63.4 / 40.7
= 1.56 gr/cm3
11 Porosity = 100 - (1.56 / 2.37 x100%)
= 34.2%

II. Handheld power and Permeability
A. Basic Theory
Permeability of a soil is the soil's ability to be able to drain the water in the soil profile, while the handheld is the soil's ability to withstand the loss of a substance in the soil.
Relationship with the Power Handheld Soil Texture, clay-textured soils have a greater surface area yasng so the ability to retain water and provide nutrients high. Fine-textured soils are more active in chemical reactions rather than coarse-textured soils. Sandy-textured soils have a smaller surface area so it is difficult to absorb (hold) water and nutrients.
2. Purpose
a. Know the size of the handheld and soil permeability
b. Analyze the factors that affect the permeability and the handheld.
3. Tools and Materials

- Transparent pipe
- Soil samples
- + Refining a petri dish
- Of cotton
- Gauze
- Rope
- The measuring cup
- Pipette
- Measuring tube

4. Work steps
- Smooth the soil samples that had previously been in the oven
- Put each sample of the transparent tube as high as 20 cm
a. Capillarity test
♦ the content as much as 100ml measuring cup, insert the tube which already contains the measuring cup into the soil samples.
♦ observe the rise of water in the tube per 5 minutes
b. Handheld Power Test
♦ fill the measuring cup with 100ml of water, pour into the tube until water is absorbed.
♦ wait until the water drips, record the time the first drop.
♦ waiting on the last droplet.
5. Measurement
a. Capillarity (from absorbed into the measuring cup)
type of soil
Time (minutes) Organic
(Cm) Sand
(Cm) Soil Nurul (Makati)
5 4,9 13 3
10 6.3 13.5 5.5
15 7.3 13.8 8.5
20 8.1 14 9.5
25 8.8 14.2 10.8
30 9.7 14.4 11.2
The remaining 86 ml Water 90 ml 78 ml

b. Handheld Power
Organic variable Nurul Sand (Makati)
A 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm
B 10.2 cm 10 cm 10.5 cm
C 1 min 49 sec 16 sec 24 min 12 sec
D 15min 15 sec 1 min 59 sec 59 min 2dtk
E 100ml 100ml 100ml
F 39 ml 58 ml 51 ml
G 38 ml 38 ml 9 ml
H 23 ml 4 ml 25 ml
I ³ 17.67 cm 18.02 cm 32.97 cm ³ ³
A 1.28 ml / cm ³ 0.23 ml / cm ³ 0.76 ml / cm ³


A. original high
B. high after a given water
C. When first trickle
D. last drop
E. original water
F. residual water in the tube
G. water dripping
H. handheld power (manual)
I. The volume of material (π.r2.t)
J. Handheld Power
H / I

I. Soil Conditions
Soil properties Nurul (Makati)
Light brown color
Sand texture with little clay
Crumb structure
Kinda hard consistency
Depth of 10 cm
Fertilization -
Taking Beaten ways to use a hammer and then dug up and taken the edge paralonnya
Low-lying state of geographical, vegetation trees Mango, papaya and grasses, the temperature of the hot, tropical climate

II. Soil density, and porosity Heavy Volume
a. Specific gravity
Conducted in the lab, specific gravity is 2.37 g/cm3 obtained which includes the mineral soil still contains organic material. The presence or absence of organic material can be seen from the land where the ground color of the District Pandaan Pasuruan have colors that tend to be more blackish brown. The brown color often occurs due to dissolution in the event of rain.
b. Heavy Volume
From this study, weight data obtained from the soil volume Pandaan Pasuruan District gr/cm3 as much as 1.56, which is included in the category of sandy soils (on the theory of gravity has sandy soil volume weight volume at 1.6 g/cm3). The volume weight is because in this land has somewhat crumb structure with larger pore spaces. In addition, organic matter content of soil also affects the weight of the soil volume.
This is evidenced by the high weight of the soil volume Pasuruan, because the soil contains little organic material Pasuruan. But in fact, similar to that land can still be used for planting crops that require a lot of organic content, because the soil samples were taken where the former urukan land development area so that there is a little more mixing of soil with sand.
c. Porosity
Porosity of a soil affected by soil texture, so the coarse-textured soil will have a porosity of less than bertesktur finely ground.
This is evidenced in pratikum, Pasuruan soil containing sand with little clay has a lower porosity.
III. Power handheld and Capillarity
a. Handheld Power
Sutau handheld power is determined by soil texture and porosity. Porosity is influenced by soil texture, affects the amount of hand-held power from the land.
- If there is dominance of the sand fraction, it will cause the formation of fewer macropores, so it touched the surface area of ​​materials to be narrow. Therefore, the handheld to the water to be very weak.
- If the dominance of the clay fraction formed many micro pores, then touch the surface area becomes very large. Therefore, the cell becomes large.
- If the dominance of the dust fraction of the meso pore formed in moderate amounts, the amount of the touch surface is wide enough. Therefore, a handheld power strong enough.
It can take a look at the comparison between ground pratikum Pasuruan, Sand and Organic Materials. The weakest hand-held power possessed by the sand. And ground water Pasuruan has greater power handheld.
In this experiment also the addition of Pasuruan high off the ground after being given water, which will expand if given water and shrink when heated.
b. Capillarity
Capillarity is the movement of water from the site berkadsar high to low water levels of the site due to higher energy retention (Pack Hanifa Ali, 2007). The presence of water in the soil can be an important component in the soil can be beneficial and detrimental kadangpula. Attraction between the water with colloidal clay causing several layers of water molecules attached to the surface of the colloidal clay is called a water adhesion. Adhesion strength of the bond can not be absorbed by the water causes the plant to crystallize aoleh.
Water-saturated soil can restrict air flow into the ground that it interferes with respiration and nutrient uptake by plant roots.
Oon research on capillarity test can prove the existence of capillarity / water absorption that occurs in both the soil type of sand, organiuk, and soil Pasuruan. Of the three soil water level changes that seep into the ground which is in the pipeline nodes. At the same time, among the three types of soil can be diperolreh the data on the type of sandy soil that has a speed higher capillarity than the soil type and soil organic Pasuruan.
Capillarity speed can be calculated every minute of the extra height, which in studies using the pause 5 menitan. Therefore, when the average speed of capillarity on the sandy soil is 0.14 cm / minute, while for organic soil data showed an average speed of 0, 2 cm / minute, while for the soil Pasuruan, 0.34 cm / minute.
So it can be concluded that the soil has the highest capillarity while the soil is sandy Pasuruan itself are a bit slow but heavy volume of research including the little sandy clay. This can be influenced by several factors, namely:
A. Possible accuracy in the lab is still less so for the detection of three types of soil kinera dal; bersammaan a very difficult time.
2. On the ground there Pasuruan clay content so it can affect the speed of soil capillarity.
From the capillarity test we can conclude the difference in speed between the three types of soil. In the capillary showed that the absorption rate is so large in the early minutes while seteklah about 20 minutes up the speed began to decrease. This proves the existence of saturation of the soil because most of the soil pore Ruan has filled with water so that the experience boredom.

D Conclusion
A. Based on the density of soil types soil weighs 2.37 Pasuruan gr/cm3, has a 1.56 Weight Volume gr/cm3 which includes a bit of clay and sand as much as 34.2% porosity which tegolong rough.
2. The test is based on hand-held ground Pasuruan has 0.76 ml / cm ³ with water stops dripping time at 24 minutes 12 seconds denganpenambahan height of 0.5 cm from the ground height of 10 cm and the initial amount of water remaining 75 ml of the initial 100 ml of water.
3. Pasuruan soil capillarity of 0.34 cm / min so because of the influence of the type of sand is mixed with a little clay content.