COASTAL AREA MANAGEMENT PLAN TO USE INFORMATION SYSTEM SENSING DATA GEOGRAPHY AND AWAY
Indonesian archipelago with the number reaching 17 508 islands and long coastline of approximately 81,000 km (DKP, 2008). This situation causes a mainstay of coastal income to Indonesian society. In the presence of the world's largest mangrove forest, coral reefs, exotic seaweed is spread in almost all the beaches, which are invaluable sources of many fisheries and the state of relatively fertile land for agriculture led to pressure for greater pesisr region.
Pesisr region is also the most densely populated areas. Approximately 140 million people or 60% of the population living in the region of coastal Indonesia (DKP, 2008). Apart from the human factors, global climate change also increase pressure on the pesisr through increasing sea levels due to global warming.
Coastal zone management must be done quickly and accurately by utilizing continuous data and technology that can properly describe the coastal region. Integration of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is one way to manage wilyah pesisr with continuous data and spatial distribution that can display a simple form peisisir region. In simple integration between remote sensing and GIS can map the condition of coastal areas so as to monitor his condition.
Remote sensing is a method for object recognition and determination of the surface of the earth without having to make direct contact with the object. Data can be continuously pengunderaan ajauh because it has a temporal resolution, can be used for various applications due to spectral resolution and displayed in various forms since the resolution spasilanya scale.
Geographic Information System (GIS) is an information system designed to work with spatially referenced data or geographic coordinates or in other words, a GIS is a database system with specific capabilities for handling spatial referenced data (spatial) working in conjunction with a set of operations (Barus and Wiradisastra, 2000). GIS applications can be used for various purposes during the processing of data has a geographic references, meaning the data is composed of a phenomenon or object that can be presented in physical form and have a spatial location.
Integration of remote sensing and GIS in coastal zone management can use the Environmental Sensitivity Index (IKL) / Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). Environmental Sensitivity Index values represent the biological, socio-economic and socio-cultural in a specific coastal and marine areas are used as a priority in response to oil spills (NOAA, 1992). IKL in the development not only to assess the environmental sensitivity to oil spills, but also the sensitivity of coastal areas against pollutants and other pollutants from both rivers, settlements, and the activities around the coast.
The vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to the impacts caused by human activity and development is highly dependent on the strength of these ecosystems withstand the changes that occur, as shown by the sensitivity of these ecosystems. The sensitivity of an ecosystem that is the picture of the strength of the ecosystem to recover as the original objec affected by the biology and ecology of these ecosystems. This is the basic theory of the determination IKL, so the results of the IKL can be used as a reference in planning and managing pesisr region.
Remote sensing data can menangkapat and identify various objects in coastal areas such as sea grass, coral reefs, state of the sand, seagrass, mangrove existence, land use, and distribution of other vegetation is a coastal ecosystem. These data can be integrated with GIS data such as administrative boundaries, population, road conditions, river conditions and the topography of the land form and topography of the beach and the sea (bathymetry).
While the use of the GIS data, GIS can also analyze the spatial data so as to provide other forms of spatial data previously entered will be useful in determining the value of IKL. The advantages of GIS are spatially referenced data handling kemampaunnya geography that integrates with the attribute data so that data can be analyzed keruangannya form. The results are as length, area, volume, association, classification and estimation of spatial-shaped appearance. The situation is obtained from the analysis and manipulation of spatial data which is another advantage of the SIG, as for example spatial analysis and data manipulation is done in such GIS overlay, interpolation, buffering and classification.
Integration of remote sensing and GIS in a study, especially in the determination of IKL is expected to be able to streamline the time and cost with a better level of accuracy as well as continue to follow the environmental change the region's ecosystems. In addition to analyzing data, GIS is also capable of producing a thematic map that is expected pretty enough to be able to help handling and spatial mapping pesisr which one example is the Environmental Sensitivity Index of thematic maps (IKL) pesisr region. IKL map examples can be seen in the picture below