Mangrove forests in Indonesia and its range

Indonesia is a rich country, we should be proud of our country. we have the largest mangrove forest in the world, the spread of the exotic coral reefs, sea grass that lie in almost all the beaches, which are invaluable sources of many fisheries. by Rusila Noor, et al. (1999) Indonesia is a country that has the largest mangrove forest biodiversity in the world with the world's largest and most varied structures in the world. What is lacking ... try entar deh data problems we see below. Mangrove forests or mangroves commonly called, although the mention of mangroves because it does not fit exactly only mangroves is one of the species itself is kind of mangrove Rhizophora spp. Mangrove forest is a typical forest types and grows along the coast or estuaries are influenced by tides. Mangroves are often found in coastal areas are protected from the onslaught of the waves and gently sloping areas in the tropics and sub ​​tropics (FAO, 2007). According Gunarto (2004) thrives in the mangrove estuaries or estuarine area that is the ultimate goal of organic particles, or silt carried from upstream akibar erosion. Fertility of this area is also determined by the presence of tidal nutrient transporting. Based on data from Directorate General of Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry (2001) in Gunarto (2004) Mangrove forest cover in Indonesia in 1999 is estimated at 8.60 million hectares will be but about 5:30 million hectares in damaged condition. While the FAO data (2007) Mangrove forest area in Indonesia in 2005 reached only 3,062,300 ha or 19% of the Mangrove forest in the world and the largest in the world than Australia (10%) and Brazil (7%).
In Asia alone Indonesian mangrove forest area amounted to about 49% of the total area of mangrove forests in Asia are followed by Malaysia (10%) and Mnyanmar (9%). But the estimated forest area has been reduced manrove diIndonesia about 120,000 ha from 1980 to 2005 due to changes in land use to agriculture (FAO, 2007). Data from the Ministry of Environment (MoE) RI (2008) based Direktoral General Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry (DG RLPS), Ministry of Forestry (2000) the potential area of mangrove forests in Indonesia is 9.204.840.32 ha area of ​​2,548,209.42 ha is in good condition , was broken and damaged 4,510,456.61 2,146,174.29 ha ha. Based on 2006 data on 15 provinces are sourced from BPDAS, DG RLPS, MoF mangrove forest 4,390,756.46 ha reached. Data Center Survey mapping results of the Natural Resources of the Sea (PSSDAL)-RAN by analyzing Landsat ETM image data (image data accumulated in 2006-2009, 190 scenes), estimate the area of mangroves in Indonesia was 3,244,018.46 ha (Hartini et al. , 2010). Ministry of Forestry in 2007 also issued a data area of mangrove forests Indonesia, while Indonesia is based on extensive mangrove forests forestry ministry is 7758410.595 ha (Director of Land and Forest Rehabilitation Ministry of Forestry, 2009 in Hartini et al., 2010), but nearly 70% damaged (do not know what kind of damage category). The agency also issued a second of data per province Mangrove area in 33 provinces in Indonesia. extensive area of mangroves in the 33-province can be seen in the following table:
NASA (2010) also release information about the extensive mangrove and spreading. he vast mangrove in Indonesia has decreased by 35% between the years 1980-2000 in which the area of mangrove in 1980 it reached 4.2 million ha and in 2000 was reduced to 2 million ha. more extreme the data nieh hehehe ... tp the most important of these is any NASA data mangrove in Indonesia as seen in the image below. They also (NASA) to upload a few photos of the conversion of mangrove forests widened fields
Whatever the form of data, which clearly we have a lot of mangrove forests are reduced. Land conversion is done by humans to the mangrove forest area as a pond, agricultural and residential areas causes land area of ​​mangrove forest is declining. In addition the utilization of mangrove forests are not responsible as a building material, firewood and charcoal is also not a little contribute to the destruction of mangrove forests. As seen in the picture below mangrove forest land use change into ponds from 1992 to 1998 Mahakam delta area. According Rusila Noor, et al. (1999) is a natural mangrove mortality did not contribute significantly to the loss of mangrove areas in Indonesia.
Satellite images SPOT images covering most of the Mahakam Delta. The red color indicates vegetation cover, including mangrove forests. (a) In 1992, shrimp farms covering only 4% of the mangrove forest area. (b). In 1998, shrimp farms has destroyed 41% of mangrove forest area. (c) Inset of the region in the white striped box in Figure (b), show a growing pattern of ponds in the region (Hussein, 2006) Now we try to see its function. Melana et al. (2000) says that the function of mangrove forests are: As a place to live and forage fish, crabs, shrimp and fish where the process of reproduction Supplying food for estuarine species living area underneath for mangrove organic produce as a protective environment to protect the ecosystem of coastal erosion and tsunamis, waves, ocean currents and hurricanes as a producer of organic biomass and absorbing pollutants around the beach with the absorption and adsorption as a place of recreation, especially for the views of bird life and other wildlife as a source of wood for housing, firewood, charcoal and wooden fish traps breeding places and catching fish seed as a drug and alcohol By looking at the functionality we expect we can maintain the mangrove forests that can be enjoyed by generation after us. Mangrove forest area is not always reduced. Oriented management of mangrove forests generate income for local communities such as the utilization of natural attractions as well as strict protection by the government to increase the area of ​​mangrove forests. In the next article I will try to review the research results in an increase in mangrove forest area Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. Which is an example of successful management of mangrove forests.